The Relationship between Positive Thinking and Individual Characteristics: Development of the Soccer Positive Thinking Scale

Kaori Tsutsui and Motoko Fujiwara

[Received September 16, 2014; Accepted August 18, 2015] 

The objectives of Study 1 were to develop the Soccer Positive Thinking Scale, and to examine its reliability and validity. The objectives of study 2 were to examine the relationship between positive thinking and individual characteristics, including the degree of demonstration of ability, competition anxiety, and goal orientation. In Study 1, the questionnaire was given to 188 male Soccer players (Mage: 19.0, SD: 1.9). The scale’s psychometric properties were tested using item-level analyses, exploratory factor analysis (major factor method with promax rotation), Cronbach’s alpha coefficients, and an analysis of the correlations between subscales. We created the Soccer Positive Thinking Scale as a questionnaire to assess positive thinking, resulting in four subscales: Self-Encouragement Thinking, Self-Assertive Thinking, Self-Instructive and Control Thinking, and Self-Affirmative Thinking. In Study 2, the questionnaire was administered to male 247 Soccer players (Mage: 18.8, SD: 1.9). We conducted t-tests and analyses of variance to examine whether there was a difference in positive thinking subscale scores based on individual characteristics. Results showed that players with high competition anxiety used Self-Instructive and Control Thinking, whereas those whose goal-orientation profile was task-oriented used Self-Instructive and Control Thinking and Self-Encouragement Thinking. Moreover, those whose goal-orientation profile was ego-oriented used Self-Assertive Thinking and Self-Affirmative Thinking. The results of these studies suggest that it is important to develop the type of positive thinking best suited to the individual.

Keywords: Positive thinking, Individual characteristics, Competition anxiety, Goal orientation

[Football Science Vol.12, 74-83, 2015]