Spectators’ Emotions during Live Sporting Events: Analysis of Spectators after the Loss of the Supported Team at the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup

Daichi Oshimi, Munehiko Harada and Takayuki Fukuhara

[Received January 6, 2014; Accepted October 7, 2014] 

This study used experimental methods to compare the emotional state and self-esteem responses of spectators at live sporting events after their supported team lost, with a focus on discrepancies between the results of the event and spectators’ expectations. This study was conducted at the league qualifier games of the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup involving the Japan National Soccer Team (Japan vs. Brazil, Japan vs. Italy, and Japan vs. Mexico). The participants were 98 undergraduate students who watched these games. The results indicated that, depending on the magnitude of the discrepancy between the events’ result and the spectators’ expectations, there was clear reinforcement of positive or negative emotions and self-esteem responses (BIRGing and CORFing). There were also indications that discrepancies between the events’results and the spectators’expectations were important determinants of emotional arousal and self-esteem responses in the spectators.

Keywords: Spectator emotion, Disconfirmation of expectancies, BIRGing, CORFing, Sporting events

[Football Science Vol.11, 48-58, 2014]